Balanced Scorecard for performance measurement and strategic planning of indigenous knowledge management


  • Tariq Zaman
  • Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer
  • Alvin W. Yeo


balanced scorecard, indigenous knowledge, ICTs, documentation, Sarawak, Indonesia


Indigenous knowledge is held locally in the memories and practices of the communities. The communities have their own processes of storage, leverage, practice, share, and developing indigenous knowledge. The form of knowledge management (KM) employed however distinctly differs from the current practices in organizations. The paper focuses on this less studied, but potentially invaluable, indigenous knowledge management (IKM) practices within these indigenous communities. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a strategic planning and performance measurement system that has already a documented history of successful implementation in several industries and enterprises knowledge management initiatives. In this paper we explore a process-oriented knowledge management model for indigenous communities. We then propose a third-generation BSC approach in the design of a holistic approach for knowledge management systems of these communities. This work serves as an extension to the past experiences of the authors in modelling K-readiness for the state of Sarawak, and in mapping and implementing of rural ICT projects.


Agrawal, A., 2002. Indigenous knowledge and the politics of classification. International Social Science Journal, 54, 187?297.
Berler, A., Pavlopoulos, S., and Koutsouri, D., 2005. Using key performance indicators as knowledge-management tools at a regional health-care authority level. Transactions on
Information Technology in Biomedicine, 9, 184?192.
Bukowitz, W.R. and Williams, R.L., 1999. The knowledge management fieldbook. London: Pearson.
Davis, W., 2009. The wayfinders: Why ancient wisdom matters in the modern world. Toronto: House of Anansi Press.
Fairchild, A.M., 2002. Knowledge management metrics via a balanced scorecard methodology. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS?02), vol. 8. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society, p. 243.
Kaplan, R.S. and Norton D.P., 1992. Balanced scorecard ? measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, Jan?Feb, 71?80.
Kaplan, S. and Norton, D.P., 1996. The balanced scorecard: translating strategy into action. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Knowledge and Learning Group, The World Bank, 2004. Indigenous knowledge local pathways to global development. Africa Region, World Bank.
Mearns, M.A. and du Toit, A.S.A., 2008. Knowledge audit: tools of the trade transmitted to tools for tradition. Journal of Information Management, 28 (3), 161?167.
Mi, Y., 2008. Performance evaluation of enterprise knowledge managements based on balanced scored card. In: Proceedings of 2008 IEEE International Conference on Service
Operations and Logistics, and Informatics, IEEE/SOLI 2008, 12?15 October, Beijing, vol. 1, 778?782. Available from:
Mountain States Group, 2010. Balanced scorecard for small rural hospitals: concept overview and implementation guidelines [online]. Available from: [Accessed 26 January 2011].
Ngulube, P., 2002. Managing and preserving indigenous knowledge in the knowledge management era: challenges and opportunities for information professionals. Information Development, 18,
Settee, P., 2008. Native languages supporting indigenous knowledge. PFII/2008/EGM1/13. New York: Secretariat of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, United Nations.
The World Bank Group, n.d. Indigenous knowledge (IK) program. Indigenous knowledge [online]. Available from: [Accessed 26 January 2011].
Ulluwishewa, R., 1993. Indigenous knowledge, national IK resource centres and sustainable development. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 1 (3), 11?13.
UNESCO/MOST, 1999. Database of best practices on indigenous knowledge [online]. Available from: [Accessed 26 January 2011].
Unisa Online, 2010. Reverting to indigenous knowledge systems [online]. University of South Africa, Unisa Online, 18 May. Available from: [Accessed 26 January 2011].
University of Cambridge, 2009. World Oral Literature Project [online]. Available from: [Accessed 26 January 2011].
UNPFII, 2008. Resource kit on indigenous people?s issues [online]. Secretariat of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues/DSPD/DESA. Available from: [Accessed 26 January 2011].
Zakaria, A.H.M. and Haryani, N., 2005. Leveraging knowledge management concept to preserve traditional knowledge. Paper presented at the International Conference on Knowledge Management (ICKM), 7?9 July, Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.