Enriching indigenous knowledge: an alternative paradigm for empowerment

  • Mansoor Shahvali Agricultural College of Shiraz University
Keywords: indigenous knowledge, SDGs, knowledge societies, local communities, UNESCO

Abstract

In 1999, the World Conference on Science has emphasised the role to be played by local and indigenous knowledge (IK) in reconciling scientific, societal, and sustainable development goals. Meanwhile, some external experts believe the concept of IK has gone through a sort of development cycle, in which it was first considered useful and then subsequently seems to have been considered less useful. We should ask ourselves how we could prevent the concept of IK from going through the same cycle of critique and rejection as other concepts such as “sustainable development”, “community-based conservation”, and “participatory development”. What can social researchers do to prevent IK from going in and out of fashion? There is no doubt that IK is essential for the eradication of poverty, as well as the localization of development. However, to be hopeful we should enrich the quality of IK with some theories and methods to empower local individuals and communities by answering three questions: (1) How can one access a knowledge society in the local communities? (2) How can one make linkages between indigenous and scientific knowledge to have a better synergy/integration? (3) How can one evaluate the customary rules and practices that govern IK to revitalise IK transmission from past to present generation and then, on to the future generations? This paper explains and provides some examples of empowering people by putting the ‘Enriching IK Paradigm’ (EIKP) into action in Iran.

References

Abbasi, A. 2000. People’s knowledge and technologies in specialists’ views and forum. Namaye-Pajouhesh Quarterly, 13 & 14 (4), 4–33.
Aboonasr H.G., 1500. A guidebook for farmers (Ershad-o-Zeraah) Edited by FarhadMoshiri (1994) Tehran: Amirkabir Publishing Institute.
Agrawal, A., 2002. Indigenous knowledge and the politics of classification. International Social Science Journal (Indigenous Knowledge), 173, 287–297.
Aqazadeh, M. and Ahadian, M., 1999. Theoretical Foundation and Instructional Application of Metacognition Theory. Tehran: Norpardazan-Peyvand Publications.
Baghery Zenoor, A., 1986. Storage products pests and control methods. 1st ed. Tehran: Sepehr Publisher.
Campbell, L.M. and A. Vainio-Mattila, 2004. Participatory development and community-based conservation: opportunity missed for lessons learned? Human Ecology, 31 (3), 417–437.
Chambers, R., 1996a. Background information on participatory rural appraisal. Introductory PRA methodology pack. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.
Chambers, R. 1996b. Participatory rural appraisal and participatory learning methods: recent experiences from MYRADA and South India. Introductory PRA methodology pack. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.
Davary-Ardekani, R., 1996. Hermeneutic and philosophy of present era. Nameh Farhang Quarterly, 18, 55–61.
Davis, A.J. and Wagner R., 2004. Who knows? On the importance of identifying ‘experts’ when researching local ecological knowledge. Human Ecology, 31 (3), 463–489.
Dove, M. 2002. Hybrid histories and indigenous knowledge among Asian rubber smallholders. International Social Science Journal (Indigenous Knowledge), 173, 349–359.
Flavell, J., 1979. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 34 (10), 906–911.
Flavell, J., 1987. Speculations about the nature and development of metacognition. In: F.E. Weinert and R.H. Kluwe, eds. Metacognition, motivation and understanding. New Jersey: Lawrence Enbaum Associates, 21–29.
Forouzani, M. and Shahvali, M., (2003). Hermeneutic method application to get benefits of cultural indigenous knowledge, In: Abstract of The First Seminar on Agricultural and Natural Resources Indigenous Knowledge and Genetics Preservation, 13–14 Oct. 2003, Zahedan, Iran. p. 63. Institute of Development Studies, 1996a. PRA Policy Pack. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex
Institute of Development Studies; 1996b. The institutionalisation of participatory approaches. PRA Topic Pack. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex
Institute of Development Studies, 1996c. Introductory PRA methodology pack. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex.
Institute of Development Studies, 1997. PRA behaviour and attitudes topic pack. Brighton, UK: University of Sussex.
Jans, V., 1997. Metacognitive realism: a cognitive style or a learning strategy. Educational Psychology, 17(1,2), 20–25.
Leach, M., and Fairhead, J., 2002. Manners of contestation: ‘Citizen Science’ and ‘indigenous knowledge’, West Africa and the Caribbean. International Social Science Journal (Indigenous
Knowledge), 173, 299–312.
Livingston, J.A., 1977. Metacognition: An overview [online]. Available from: http.//www.gse.buffalso.edu/fas/shuell/cep564/metcog.htm [Accessed 29 June 2010]
Madely, J., 1998. The definition of indigenous knowledge. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 6 (3), 13.
Mutema, G., 2003. Phenomenology, hermeneutics and the study of indigenous knowledge systems. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, 2, 81–88.
Nakashim, D., and Morohashi, J., 2002. UNESCO’s action on local and indigenous knowledge systems. International Social Science Journal (Indigenous Knowledge), 173, 286.
Nooripoor C.S., 2002. An investigation of the training of the grape moth control among farmers by using indigenous and scientific knowledge in Dena County, in Koukhdan and Samour villages. Knowledge Management for Development Journal 205. Thesis (MSc). Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural College,
Shiraz University.
Ortiz, O., 1999. Understanding interactions between indigenous knowledge and scientific information. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 7 (3), 7–10.
Palmer, R.E., 1998. Hermeneutics: interpretation theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Hiedegger, and Gadamer. Trans. M.S. Hanaee-Kashani. Tehran: Hermes.
Russel, D., and Harshbarger, C., 2003. Groundwork for community-based conservation-strategies for social research. Oxford: Altamira Press.
Sepidar, A.A., 1986. Home pests and storage: knowing how to control them. Tehran: Nasher Semiran.
Shahvali, M. and Amiri-Ardekani, M., 2004. Research methodology for agricultural indigenous knowledge. Tehran: Ministry of Agriculture Press.
Shahvali, M., and Forouzani, M., 2003. Cultural indigenous knowledge application through hermeneutic method, In: Agriculture and Natural Resources Organization, 1st Extension
Seminar on Indigenous Knowledge and Heritages in Agriculture and Natural Resources. 14–15 October , Iran: Zahedan, 77.
Shahvali, M., and Nooripoor, C.S., 2002. Indigenous and scientific knowledge integration for educational extension curriculum development, In: Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Summary of Proceedings of 18th Annual Conference. 26–30 May 2002, Durban, 95.
Shahvali, M. and Zarafshani, K., 2002. Using PRA techniques as metacognition strategies to develop indigenous knowledge: a case study. International Social Science Journal (Indigenous
Knowledge), 173, 413–419.
Tuffield, M., Mischa, M., Shadbolt, N.R., and Millard, D.E., 2005. Narrative as a form of knowledge transfer: narrative theory and semantics. In: D.E. Millard Proceedings 1st AKT Doctoral
Symposium, Milton Keynes: KMi, Open University, 95–98.
Unruh, J.D., 1995. The relationship between indigenous pastoralists’ resource tenure and state tenure in Somalia. Geo Journal, 36 (1), 19–26. Available from: http://www.anaserve.com/∼
mbali/unruh.html
Whittington, S., 1998. Improving the cognitive level of college teaching: a successful faculty intervention. Journal of Agricultural Education, 39 (3), 33–39.
Published
2019-08-16
Section
Papers